Officer Behavior in Police-Citizen Encounters: A Descriptive Model and Implications for Less-Than-Lethal Alternatives

Publication Date

September 1996


Karen Amendola


Increasingly, police practitioners and researchers are seeking new technologies and approaches to reduce the potential of violent police-citizen encounters. This report is part of a larger study conducted by the Police Foundation under a cooperative agreement with the National Institute of Justice in response to the clear need to devise approaches that permit police to exercise control of difficult situations with the minimum force possible. The study analyzed data concerning several types of police-citizen encounters to ascertain characteristics of those encounters, paying particular attention to how control tactics and technologies might be applied.

Recommended Citation

Amendola, K.L. (1996). Officer behavior in police-citizen encounters: A descriptive model and implications for less-than-lethal alternatives. Police Foundation.